Native to the Americas, where it has been cultivated for thousands of years, Capsicum is now cultivated worldwide and has become a key element in many cuisines. It can be sliced into strips and fried, roasted whole or in pieces, or chopped and incorporated into salsas or other sauces, or cooked in stir-fries or other mixed dishes. Capsicum consists of 20 to 27 species, five of which are domesticated: C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, and C. pubescens. In the United States and Canada, the common heatless varieties of capsicum are referred to as bell peppers, sweet peppers, red/green peppers, or simply peppers. In Australia, New Zealand, and India, heatless varieties are called “capsicums”, while hot ones are called chilli/chillies.